Description of the Hypocrites
al-Jawzi (رحمه الله )
Tarīq al-Hijratain wa Bāb as-Sa’ādatain
Brought by Sister Umm Umar
“…Verily this level is for the most miserable of the wretched ones, so for this reason, they shall be belittled and mocked in the hereafter. A light shall be given to them thereby they will traverse with it upon the Sirat Then, Allah shall extinguish their light and it shall be said to them: “Go back to your rear and then seek a light. So a wall will be placed between them, with a gate therein.” [Surah al-Hadid] and this is the most severe [form] of immense regret and affliction- namely, that the path of salvation and success is opened for the servant to the point where he thought that he was safe-seeing the dwellings and levels of the happy ones- however, suddenly, he is cut off from them and is struck with wretchedness, and we seek refuge with Allah from His anger and punishment.
This level is in the lowest part of the fire due to the severity of their Kufr. That is because they mixed and intermingled with the Muslims and lived with them witnessing from the signs of the message [i.e. Islam] and signs of Iman that which the far off ones [i.e. the original open Kuffar] did not. There arrived to them from knowledge of it and its correctness that which did not reach to those who declare their enmity and animosity [towards Islam].
So, if they disbelieved with this knowledge and awareness, they are then more severe in Kufr and more vile of heart and stronger in enmity to Allah His Messenger and the believers than the far off ones from them [i.e. the open Kuffar]-even if the far off ones embark upon war against the Muslims. For this reason, the Most High said, “that is because they believed and then they disbelieved.” And the Most High said about them: “blind deaf and dumb so they will not return.” And Allah said about the Kuffar: “blind deaf and dumb so they do not use their intellect.”
The Kafir did not understand, yet the Munafiq perceived and saw and was thereafter blinded. He knew, yet thereafter he feigned ignorance. He admitted yet then he denied. He believed yet then disbelieved. So, whoever is like this, then he is more severe in Kufr and filthier of heart and more haughty against Allah and his Messenger.
So, they deserved the ‘Dark al-Asfal’ [the absolute lowest part of the hell-fire], and there is another meaning to that as well and that is: the motivating factor that carried them to Nifaq was the search for honor and rank between the two groups [the believers and the Kuffar], so they please the believers so as to obtain honor from them and they please the Kuffar so that they give them honor as well. It is from this [area] that the affliction struck them. They desired the two honors from the two groups. They had no purpose in Iman, Islam or obedience to Allah and His Messenger-rather their inclination, affection and direction was towards the Kuffar. As a result, they received the most tremendous humiliation and that is by them taking as their permanent abode the position of the lowest of the low under the Kuffar.
Due to what the Munafiqun are described with of seeking to deceive Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, poking fun at the people of Iman, lying, playing with the Deen while manifesting themselves as if they are from the believers, concealing Kufr, Shirk and enmity towards Allah and His Messenger to an extant that surpasses the Kuffar, due to all of this their Kufr was severe and they deserved the ‘Dark al-Asfal’ of the fire.
For this reason, Allah made mention of the types and divisions of the creation in the beginning of Surah al- Baqarah,
“This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat),and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakat , spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allah’s Cause - Jihad, etc.]. And who believe in (the Qur’an and the Sunnah) which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.). They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful. Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah’s Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.
And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies. And when it is said to them: “Make not mischief on the earth,” they say: “We are only peacemakers.” Verily! They are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): “Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad Peace be upon him , Al-Ansar and Al-Muhajirun) have believed,” they say: “Shall we believe as the fools have believed?” Verily, they are the fools, but they know not. And when they meet those who believe, they say: “We believe,” but when they are alone with their Shayatin (devils - polytheists, hypocrites, etc.), they say: “Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking.” Allah mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doings to wander blindly. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path). Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allah ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allah will gather them all together). The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allah has power over all things. ” [al-Baqarah : (2) : 20].
Therein he divided them into:
· A believer both inwardly and outwardly
· A disbeliever both inwardly and outwardly
· A believer outwardly and a disbeliever inwardly- and they are the Munafiqun.
Allah revealed three Ayat concerning the believers [3-5] and two Ayat with respect to the disbelievers (6-8). So, when Allah reached the Munafiqun, He mentioned about ten or so Ayat [8-20] condemning them therein with the strongest form of condemnation, unveiling their secrets, rebuking them and exposing them.
He mentioned that they are:
· The foolish ones
· The ones who sow corruption upon the earth
· Those who seek to deceive
· Those who poke fun and belittle [the believers]
· Those who were beguiled and duped by their purchase of misguidance for guidance
· He mentioned them being blind, deaf, and dumb so they will not return [to the truth]
· They are with diseased hearts and Allah increases sickness upon their sickness
Allah did not leave any disparagement or defect except that He described them with it and this indicates how severe indeed His hatred, abhorrence, and enmity for them is and that [indicates] they are the most hated of His enemies to Him.
His penetrating wisdom is made apparent by Him choosing for them this level of ‘ad- ‘Dark al- Asfal’ of the fire- we seek refuge with Allah from their condition and we ask Him for His pardon and mercy.
Whoever contemplates what Allah has described the Munafiqun with in the Qur’an from the attributes of condemnation, he will know that they have more right to the ‘Dark al- Asfal’ for He has described them as:
Those who seek to deceive Him and His servants
Those whose hearts are sick- and it is the sickness of doubts and misconceptions
Sowing corruption in the earth, belittling His Deen and His servants- transgressing the limits
Purchasing misguidance for guidance
Blindness, deafness, and dumbness and laziness in worshipping Him
Lack of His remembrance
Indecisiveness- and that is wavering between the believers and the Kuffar- they are not with these nor with those
Swearing by Allah in falsehood and lying
Possessing the peak of cowardliness
A lack of understanding the religion and no knowledge
Absence of Iman in Allah and the last day
That they are harmful to the believers.
They obtain nothing from their (the believers) sincere advice save evil from hindrance and rushing to evil between them and spreading Fitnah
Their hatred for the command [i.e. the victory] of Allah to become manifest
Their pursuit in eradicating the truth
That they become saddened by what happens to the believers from good and victory and they become delighted and joyous over what befalls them from trials and tribulations.
They lie in ambush for the believers
Their hatred of spending (wealth) for the pleasure of Allah and in His path.
Their finding fault with the believers and accusing them of matters that they are free from- hence, they defame those who give Sadaqah and they find fault with their small amount [that they may give] and they accuse most of them of Riya’[showing off] and desiring the praise of the people.
That they are slaves of the worldly life. If they are given a portion, they are pleased and if they are denied then they are unhappy.
That they harm the Messenger of Allah [sallahu alayhi was salam] and they attribute to him that which Allah has declared him free of
They find fault with him in what is from his virtue and completion [perfection]
They intend the pleasure of the creation instead of the pleasure for the Lord of the worlds
That they make fun of the believers
That they become delighted if they are [able] to stay behind the Messenger of Allah [sallahu alayhi was sallam]
That they hate Jihad in the cause of Allah
That they make excuses for their abandonment of the obligations of Allah upon them with various forms of excuses
That they are pleased to lag behind in the obedience to Allah and his Messenger
That their hearts are sealed
That they abandon that which Allah has made obligatory upon them while they have the ability to do it.
That they swear by Allah more than anyone else they have taken their oaths as a shield that protects them from the censure of the Muslims upon him. This is the affair of the Munafiq. He swears by Allah while lying and has taken his oath as a shield protecting himself by it from the censure of the Muslims upon him.
He has described them with “Rijs”. The Rijs is the filthiest and disgusting thing found in a species. So they are the vilest and filthiest of the sons of Adam and the most despicable of them.
That they are Fasiqun [criminals, corrupt]
That they are a source of harm to the people of Iman- intending to divide them
That they give aid and succour to those that wage war against Allah and His Messenger [sallahu alayhi was sallam].
That they imitate them [the believers] and resemble them in their actions so that by it they can harm them and split their word [i.e. unity] and this is always the case with the Munafiqun.
That they have put themselves into trial by their disbelief in Allah and His Messenger and that they lie in ambush for them [the believers] and this is their manner and custom in every era.
That they had doubt in the Deen, therefore they didn’t believe in it- and the false wishes and hopes beguiled them and deceived them and the Shaytan seduced them.
That they are the best of people in bodies and physical build for the person will be amazed when he sees their bodies and the one who listens to them will be amazed with their speech. However, if you went past their physical bodies and their words you would find them as propped up wood- with no Iman and no Fiqh [understanding of the religion] and no knowledge and no Sidq [truthfulness]. On the contrary, they are like wood that has donned clothing. It delights the on looker and yet behind it [the clothing] there is nothing.
That if Tawbah [repentance] was offered to them they would refuse and claim that they have no need of it- either due to what is in them from heresy and compound ignorance of it and the acts of obedience in general- like many of the heretics- or out of beguilement and pronounced arrogance towards the one who called them to it.
He, the Glorified, described them with mocking and jesting with Him, His Ayat and his Messenger.
That they are Mujrimun [criminals]
That they command the evil and forbid the good
That they grasp [hold back] their hands from spending out in his pleasure
That they forget his remembrance
That they turn to the Kuffar and abandon the believers.
That the Shaytan has gained mastery over them and overcame them so he caused them to forget the remembrance of Allah- therefore they do not remember Allah but very little.
That they are the party of Shaytan
That they ally themselves with those that oppose Allah and His Messenger
That they have hope for and wish for that which will distress the believers and cause them hardship
That their hatred has manifested in their mouths and from the slips of their tongues
That they say with their tongues what is not in their hearts.
And from the attributes that they have been described with by the Messenger of Allah [sallahu alayhi was sallam] is:
Lying in speech
Betraying the trust
Breaching the contracts
Licentiousness in argumentation
Breaking the promise [al- Bukhari-1/33 al- Fath]
Delaying the Salah to the end of its appointed time while performing it quickly and hastily.
Leaving its attendance in the congregation- “and the heaviest of prayers upon them is the morning and ‘lsha’.”
[al- Bukhari- al- Fath 2/608]
From the attributes that Allah has described them with is:
Avarice [extreme greed] upon the believers in good cowardice in the times of fear.
That when the fear departs and the safety comes they lash out at the believers with their sharp tongues-therefore they have the sharpest tongues of people against them as it was said:
Acting in ignorance against us and with cowardice against your enemies How despised are those two qualities-especially cowardice
That in the times of fear they make apparent the secrets of their chests and what is hidden in their hearts As for during the times of safety and peace, it is binding to conceal it. So if fear befell the Muslims, the scorpions of their hearts will have crept up and approached.
That of the people, they have the sweetest of tongues while they are the most bitter of hearts.
That they are the greatest of people in opposition [contradiction] between their actions and words.
That pleasant silence and understanding of the Deen does not coincide with them
Their actions disown and give lie to their words and their innermost selves give lie and disown their apparent [outward] and their innermost secrets contradict their open and public selves.
That the believer does not trust them for they have prepared a way out of every affair whether in truth or falsehood- whether with truth or with lies
So due to this, he has been called a Munafiq. Taken from Nafaqa al- Yarbu’- the tunnel of the Jerboa [the jerboa is a mouse like jumping rodent found in the Desert regions of Eurasia and Africa.]. It is an abode that it digs and places in it many different burrows and points of entry. This is so that whenever it is sought after from a burrow, it flees to another burrow- so the one seeking after it cannot take hold of it in one burrow. The poet said:
And he removes the jerboa from his burrows
And from his cave with an avid greed
Their affair is basically that they are in the Muslim Jama’ah like the counterfeit money in a pile of currency. They circulate among most of the people because of the people’s lack of insight in the quality of currency [separating the real from the counterfeit]. The individual who is well acquainted and discerning knows their condition- and how few they [that type] are!
Nothing is more harmful to the Deens than these types of people and the religions are only corrupted by way of them. For this reason, Allah made their affair clear in the Qur’an and He clarified their attributes and made clear their condition. He oft repeated their mention due to the severity of burden upon the Muslim Ummah from them, and the tremendous nature of their afflictions and trials placed upon the Ummah because of their presence among them and due to the dire need of having knowledge of them and taking precaution from resembling them and lending them and ear and listening to them.
Indeed, how many have they severed travelling to Allah-the path of guidance and how many have they taken with them to the path of destruction and ruin! They promised them and indulged them in hopes but they have promised them only delusion and they have indulged them in of hopes of only woe and loss.
And how many have they killed but in the path of destruction and Shaytan and how many have they taken as a prisoner with no hope for his release and how many of those are fleeing from Allah and not to Him!
Accompanying them brings about shame and disgrace and loving them brings about the anger of al- Jabbar and obligates entering the fire.
For by Allah, they are the highway robbers Oh riders and travellers to the ranks and levels of the people of happiness. Beware of them- beware! They are the butchers, their tongues being the blades of affliction. Flee from them oh flock flee!
And from the [greatest] of affliction is that they are the enemies in truth and we have no escape from accompanying and mixing with them. Mixing with them is the greatest disease yet there is no escape from mixing with them. They have placed callers upon the doors of Jahannam so woe to those that answer. They have placed their netting around it- around what has been surrounded by desires so woe to the delusional ones. They have placed the netting and stretched out the snare and a caller from amongst them called out:
And they said: enter the door of humiliation lowly and small and do not say “hittah” for today there is no “hittah”. What an amazing thing for the one who was saved from there snares-not the one who was ensnared, how and when will he be saved, the one whose ruin has overcome him and for it he was created.
So it is proper upon the people of this level to encamp at their area that Allah has placed for them from the abode of humiliation and to descend to the most despicable level of the people of kufr and opposition.
According to the level of the servant’s Iman and knowledge will be the servant’s fear of being from this level. For this reason, the notables of this Ummah and its predecessors had severe fear for themselves from being from this level.
‘Umar ibn Al Khattab said: “Oh Hudhayfah: I ask you by Allah, did the Prophet [sallhu alayhi was sallam] name me from those people [the Munafiqun]? He said: ” no, and I will not ever purify anyone else after you.” al-Bukhari 416.
This means: I will not open up this door upon me purifying people. This does not mean that he wouldn’t declare anyone else to be free of Nifaq.
lbn Abi Mulaykah said,”I met thirty companions of the Messenger of Allah [sallahu alayhi was sallam], all of them feared Nifaq for himself and none of them said that he was upon the Iman of Jibril or Mikail.”
Submitted by a Mujahid